The concept of super-asymmetry is related to super-symmetry string theory.
In particle physics, "supersymmetry" is a proposed type of space-time symmetry that relates two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin. Each particle from one group is associated with a particle from the other, known as its super-partner, the spin of which differs by a half-integer.
While most of the science discussed in the show has it's basis with real-world science, the concept of super-asymmetry is fairly unique to the world of "The Big Bang Theory". Amy and Sheldon are working on a new theory or concept for string theory and appear to be on the road to a Nobel Prize.
The TBBT writers requested that their science consultant Dr. Saltzberg come up with something that was a discovery that could be worthy of a Nobel Prize, but had not been thought of. Dr. Saltzberg came up with the concept of Super-Asymmetry.
Dr. Saltberg: Theoreticians love symmetrical equations, but the world around us is clearly asymmetrical. What theoretical physicists often do is create a theory with lots of symmetry, but then then break it, to explain our world. ... The brilliance of Sheldon and Amy was to include asymmetry into their theory from the start. (NPR 5-15-19)
At the end of the series, Sheldon and Amy win the Nobel Prize for their Super-Asymmetry theory.