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Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM) is a set of scientific principles describing the known behavior of energy and matter that predominates at the atomic and subatomic scales. The name derives from the observation that some physical quantities — such as the energy of an electron bound into an atom or molecule — can be changed only by discrete amounts, or quanta, rather than being capable of varying by any amount. The wave–particle duality of energy and matter at the atomic scale provides a unified view of the behavior of particles such as photons and electrons. Photons are the quanta of light, and have energy values proportional to their frequency via the |Planck constant. An electron bound in an atomic orbital has quantized values of Angular momentum#Angular momentum in quantum mechanics|angular momentum and energy. The unbound electron does not exhibit quantized energy levels, but is associated with a Compton wavelength|quantum mechanical wavelength, as are all massive particles. The full significance of the Planck constant is expressed in physics through the abstract mathematical notion of action.

The mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics is abstract and its implications are often non-intuitive. The centerpiece of this mathematical system is the wave function. The wave function is a mathematical function of time and space that can provide information about the position and momentum of a particle, but only as probabilities, as dictated by the constraints imposed by the uncertainty principle. Mathematical manipulations of the wave function usually involve the bra-ket notation, which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. Many of the results of QM can only be expressed mathematically and do not have models that are as easy to visualize as those of classical mechanics. For instance, the ground state in quantum mechanical model is a non-zero energy state that is the lowest permitted energy state of a system, rather than a more traditional system that is thought of as simple being at rest with zero kinetic energy.


The word quantum derives from Latin meaning "how great" or "how much". In quantum mechanics, it refers to a discrete unit that quantum theory assigns to certain physical quantities, such as the energy of an atom at rest. The discovery that particles are discrete packets of energy with wave-like properties led to the branch of physics that deals with atomic and subatomic systems which is today called quantum mechanics. It is the underlying mathematical framework of many fields of physics and chemistry, including condensed matter physics, solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computational physics, computational chemistry, quantum chemistry, particle physics, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear physics. The foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Werner Heisenberg, Max Planck, Louis de Broglie, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, |Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli, David Hilbert, and others. Some fundamental aspects of the theory are still actively studied.

Quantum mechanics is essential to understand the behavior of systems at atomic length scales and smaller. For example, if classical mechanics governed the workings of an atom, electrons would rapidly travel towards and collide with the nucleus, making stable atoms impossible. However, in the natural world the electrons normally remain in an uncertain, non-deterministic "smeared" (wave–particle wave function) orbital path around or through the nucleus, defying classical electromagnetism.

Quantum mechanics was initially developed to provide a better explanation of the atom, especially the spectrum|spectra of light emitted by different isotope|atomic species. The quantum theory of the atom was developed as an explanation for the electron's staying in its atomic orbital|orbital, which could not be explained by Newton's laws of motion and by Maxwell's equations|Maxwell's laws of classical electromagnetism.

In the formalism of quantum mechanics the state of a system at a given time is described by a complex number|complex wave function (sometimes referred to as orbitals in the case of atomic electrons), and more generally, elements of a complex vector space. This abstract mathematical object allows for the calculation of probabilities of outcomes of concrete experiments. For example, it allows one to compute the probability of finding an electron in a particular region around the nucleus at a particular time. Contrary to classical mechanics, one can never make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables, such as position and momentum, with accuracy. For instance, electrons may be considered to be located somewhere within a region of space, but with their exact positions being unknown. Contours of constant probability, often referred to as "clouds", may be drawn around the nucleus of an atom to conceptualize where the electron might be located with the most probability. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle quantifies the inability to precisely locate the particle given its conjugate.

The other exemplar that led to quantum mechanics was the study of electromagnetic waves such as light. When it was found in 1900 by Max Planck that the energy of waves could be described as consisting of small packets or quanta, Albert Einstein further developed this idea to show that an electromagnetic wave such as light could be described by a particle called the photon with a discrete energy dependent on its frequency. This led to a Photon polarization|theory of unity between subatomic particles and electromagnetic waves called wave–particle duality in which particles and waves were neither one nor the other, but had certain properties of both. While quantum mechanics describes the world of the very small, it also is needed to explain certain macroscopic quantum systems such as superconductivity|superconductors and superfluids.

Broadly speaking, quantum mechanics incorporates four classes of phenomena for which classical physics cannot account:

  1. The quantization (physics)|quantization (discretization) of Canonical conjugate variables|certain physical quantities
  2. Wave–particle duality
  3. The uncertainty principle
  4. Quantum entanglement

Each of these phenomena is described in detail in subsequent sections.

Studied by all the physicists such as Leslie, Sheldon and Leonard.

More Information[]

For further details and history, view Quantum Mechanics in Wikipedia.

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