The Nobel Prize is one of several annual international awards bestowed by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes (Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine) in 1895. Since 1969 an award has been made for Economic Sciences. First awarded in 1901 the prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields. Almost 600 awards have been given out. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden, though the Peace Prize is given out in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient or laureate receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that exceeds $US 900,000. Though given to organizations, any may not be shared among more than three individuals.
In "The Big Bang Theory":
In the context of the show both Leonard and Sheldon dream of one day winning the Nobel Prize in Physics. Sheldon is sure that he will win while he openly doubts that Leonard has the capabilities to win it.